While he was there, he was required to declare bankruptcy, by which he lost virtually all his possessions including his books and manuscripts. On 23 November he was again moved, to the prison at Reading, which also had similar rules, where he spent the remainder of his sentence, and was assigned the third cell on the third floor of C ward—and thereafter addressed and identified only as "C.
Prisoners were identified only by their cell numbers and not by name. About five months after Wilde arrived at Reading Gaol, Charles Thomas Wooldridge , a trooper in the Royal Horse Guards, was brought to Reading to await his trial for murdering his common-law wife and promptly presenting himself and confessing to a policeman on 29 March ; on 17 June, Wooldridge was sentenced to death and returned to Reading for his execution, which took place on Tuesday, 7 July —the first hanging at Reading in 18 years.
The poem is dedicated to him as C. Wilde was released from prison on 18 May and he promptly went to France, never returning to Britain. He died in Paris, at the age of 46, on 30 November While in France, surviving on an allowance from his wife of three pounds a week—deliberately meagre to discourage the sort of high living that had led to his downfall—Wilde endeavoured to find additional money.
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In August , he sent the publisher Leonard Smithers an initial draft of the Ballad, which made such an impression that Smithers was enthusiastic about publishing it and even approached Aubrey Beardsley to do an illustration for it which was not done. Thereafter there was a very active correspondence between the two of them, as Wilde was repeatedly revising and expanding the text, and supervising from afar the choice and size of typeface and the layout of the work.
However, even the printing house hired to do the book demanded a change—for fear that the prison doctor would sue over the line which originally read "While the coarse-mouthed doctor gloats", it was changed to "While some coarse-mouthed doctor gloats".
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As one biographer, Leonard Cresswell Ingleby , said, "Never, perhaps, since Gray 's Elegy had a poem been so revised, pruned, and polished over and over again as this cry from a prison cell". Originally the first edition—with no assurance of a second edition—was planned for only copies, but when Wilde calculated the printing expenses, he realised that even selling all would not cover costs, and at his instigation Smithers instructed the printing house to double the number of copies and keep the printing plates in hopes of a reprinting.
As publication day approached, Wilde was occasionally seized by a sort of panic over his finances and the risks of the poem failing to sell well, and made some half-hearted efforts to sell the poem's copyright for immediate cash; there were only a few disappointing nibbles and no such sale was made.
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Fortunately, the poem sold very well and very quickly, and caused such a stir that subsequent printings also sold well for more than a year, assuring Wilde of a steady income which he did not outlive, as he died less than four years after the Ballad first appeared. It has been suggested  that Wilde was, to some degree, inspired by poem IX in A.
Housman 's A Shropshire Lad , which alludes to the hanging of condemned prisoners:. Although there is no specific documentation to show Wilde's active revising after the appearance of the first edition, there were some slight changes made in the second edition, which was printed only two weeks after the first edition went on sale.
For example, in the first edition a line read "And his step was light", and in the second edition it becomes "And his step seemed light". These tiny alterations persisted through the seventh edition, the last edition handled by Smithers, and thereafter to most of the reprints.
Wilde did acknowledge evidently to several people, since numerous separate sources recalled this a glaring error in the very first line of the poem, "He did not wear his scarlet coat"—because Wooldridge, as a member of the Royal Horse Guards, had a blue uniform—but justified this poetic licence because the second line would make no sense if it said "For blood and wine are blue ".
Oscar Wilde (1854 - 1900)
The line is a nod to Shakespeare 's The Merchant of Venice , when Bassanio asks "Do all men kill the things they do not love? A passage from the poem was chosen as the epitaph on Wilde's tomb ;. So with curious eyes and sick surmise We watched him day by day, And wondered if each one of us Would end the self-same way, For none can tell to what red Hell His sightless soul may stray.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Poetry portal. Archived from the original on 15 June Retrieved 22 May George, ed. Rediscovering Oscar Wilde. Gerrards Cross [England]: C. His Bibliography of the Poems of Oscar Wilde , London has some details about the Ballad that do not appear in his larger book. Although the announced date of publication was 13 February, that was a Sunday so the book was not actually available for purchase until the next day, ibid pages — The first edition consisted of copies on Van Gelder Dutch handmade paper, selling for 2 shillings 6 pence, and 30 copies printed on Japanese vellum for 21 shillings one guinea.
Oscar Wilde. New York: Vintage Books. Waterside Press. Oscar Wilde begins his prison meditation, De Profundis , with an aphorism, not the light and witty kind for which his plays are famous, but one which resonates with bleak experience: "Suffering is one very long moment. The Ballad of Reading Gaol, this week's choice, is the fulfilment of that plan. Wilde wrote the poem in He was now free, but a broken man, and a broke one. Besides two letters, he produced nothing else of literary significance before his death.
It was first published simply under his prisoner identification number, C. The poem is dedicated to the memory of the "sometime" Royal Horse Guards trooper, Charles Thomas Wooldridge, and the central incident is Wooldridge's execution for the murder of his wife. Around this narrative core, whose genre might be described as gothic realism, Wilde builds a meditation on the paradoxes of morality.
The Ballad is an indictment of the death penalty and the whole penal system, but it is much more than a protest poem. It is a revelation, and its structure is part of that revelation. Everyone can quote the refrain: "For each man kills the thing he loves.
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What does Wilde mean? Perhaps he is saying that love itself corrupts or alters its object. That would certainly seem to have been true of his relationship with "Bosie", Lord Alfred Douglas, seemingly a spoiled brat further spoiled by Wilde's adulation. Judas, of course, is on his mind: the poem refers to the kiss of Caiaphas, the latter being the priest who participated in Christ's betrayal.
shop.reborn.mk/cmo-tomar-las-mejores-decisiones-en-citas.php Wilde loved paradox, and he found some essential symbol of it in the man who murdered his wife. Perhaps he found another in the hypocrisy of the prison system itself, destroying the souls and bodies of those it would reform. The ballad form, as he adapts it, encases paradox and story in a tight, encircling ring.
It is both a Dante-esque circle of hell and the deadly routine of prison life.
It represents the whole cycle of crime and punishment. It is inescapable, like the "iron gin" mentioned in line , a symbol of confinement and possibly also an actual machine. In the plodding iambic tetrameter and the extensive use of refrain and parallelism, we can feel at a physical level the grinding relentlessness of prison work. The tasks Victorian prisoners were set were part of their punishment. They would pedal a treadmill with their feet, for example, and though some prison treadmills were geared to grind corn or raise water, others had no use but to enslave.
Related The Ballad Of Reading Gaol [with Biographical Introduction]
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