Focusing more on lifestyle issues and their relationships with functional health, data from the Alameda County Study suggested that people can improve their health via exercise , enough sleep , spending time in nature, maintaining a healthy body weight , limiting alcohol use, and avoiding smoking. The environment is often cited as an important factor influencing the health status of individuals.
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This includes characteristics of the natural environment , the built environment and the social environment. Factors such as clean water and air , adequate housing , and safe communities and roads all have been found to contribute to good health, especially to the health of infants and children. Genetics , or inherited traits from parents, also play a role in determining the health status of individuals and populations. This can encompass both the predisposition to certain diseases and health conditions, as well as the habits and behaviors individuals develop through the lifestyle of their families.
For example, genetics may play a role in the manner in which people cope with stress , either mental, emotional or physical. For example, obesity is a significant problem in the United States that contributes to bad mental health and causes stress in the lives of great numbers of people. A number of types of health issues are common around the globe. Disease is one of the most common. According to GlobalIssues.
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Another health issue that causes death or contributes to other health problems is malnutrition, especially among children. One of the groups malnutrition affects most is young children.
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Approximately 7. Bodily injuries are also a common health issue worldwide. These injuries, including broken bones, fractures, and burns can reduce a person's quality of life or can cause fatalities including infections that resulted from the injury or the severity injury in general Moffett, Lifestyle choices are contributing factors to poor health in many cases.
These include smoking cigarettes, and can also include a poor diet, whether it is overeating or an overly constrictive diet. Inactivity can also contribute to health issues and also a lack of sleep, excessive alcohol consumption, and neglect of oral hygiene Moffett There are also genetic disorders that are inherited by the person and can vary in how much they affect the person and when they surface Moffett, Though the majority of these health issues are preventable, a major contributor to global ill health is the fact that approximately 1 billion people lack access to health care systems Shah, Arguably, the most common and harmful health issue is that a great many people do not have access to quality remedies.
The World Health Organization describes mental health as "a state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community". Mental illness is described as 'the spectrum of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral conditions that interfere with social and emotional well-being and the lives and productivity of people.
Having a mental illness can seriously impair, temporarily or permanently, the mental functioning of a person.
Other terms include: 'mental health problem', 'illness', 'disorder', 'dysfunction'. Roughly one fifth of all adults 18 and over in the US are considered diagnosable with mental illness. Mental illnesses are the leading cause of disability in the US and Canada. Examples include, schizophrenia , ADHD , major depressive disorder , bipolar disorder , anxiety disorder , post-traumatic stress disorder and autism. Achieving and maintaining health is an ongoing process, shaped by both the evolution of health care knowledge and practices as well as personal strategies and organized interventions for staying healthy.
An important way to maintain your personal health is to have a healthy diet. A healthy diet includes a variety of plant-based and animal-based foods that provide nutrients to your body. Such nutrients give you energy and keep your body running. Nutrients help build and strengthen bones, muscles, and tendons and also regulate body processes i. Water is essential for growth, reproduction and good health.
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Macronutrients are consumed in relatively large quantities and include proteins, carbohydrates, and fats and fatty acids. Micronutrients — vitamins and minerals — are consumed in relatively smaller quantities, but are essential to body processes. Each section shows the recommended intake for each food group i. Protein, Fat, Carbohydrates, and Sugars. Making healthy food choices is important because it can lower your risk of heart disease, developing some types of cancer , and it will contribute to maintaining a healthy weight.
The Mediterranean diet is commonly associated with health-promoting effects due to the fact that it contains some bioactive compounds like phenolic compounds , isoprenoids and alkaloids. Physical exercise enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.
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It strengthens muscles and improves the cardiovascular system. According to the National Institutes of Health , there are four types of exercise: endurance , strength , flexibility , and balance. Sleep is an essential component to maintaining health. In children, sleep is also vital for growth and development. Ongoing sleep deprivation has been linked to an increased risk for some chronic health problems. In addition, sleep deprivation has been shown to correlate with both increased susceptibility to illness and slower recovery times from illness.
Health science is the branch of science focused on health. There are two main approaches to health science: the study and research of the body and health-related issues to understand how humans and animals function, and the application of that knowledge to improve health and to prevent and cure diseases and other physical and mental impairments.
The science builds on many sub-fields, including biology , biochemistry , physics , epidemiology , pharmacology , medical sociology. Applied health sciences endeavor to better understand and improve human health through applications in areas such as health education , biomedical engineering , biotechnology and public health. Organized interventions to improve health based on the principles and procedures developed through the health sciences are provided by practitioners trained in medicine , nursing , nutrition , pharmacy , social work , psychology , occupational therapy , physical therapy and other health care professions.
Clinical practitioners focus mainly on the health of individuals, while public health practitioners consider the overall health of communities and populations. Workplace wellness programs are increasingly adopted by companies for their value in improving the health and well-being of their employees, as are school health services in order to improve the health and well-being of children. Public health has been described as "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals.
The population in question can be as small as a handful of people or as large as all the inhabitants of several continents for instance, in the case of a pandemic. Public health has many sub-fields, but typically includes the interdisciplinary categories of epidemiology , biostatistics and health services.
Environmental health , community health , behavioral health , and occupational health are also important areas of public health. The focus of public health interventions is to prevent and manage diseases, injuries and other health conditions through surveillance of cases and the promotion of healthy behavior , communities , and in aspects relevant to human health environments. Its aim is to prevent health problems from happening or re-occurring by implementing educational programs , developing policies , administering services and conducting research. Vaccination programs and distribution of condoms to prevent the spread of communicable diseases are examples of common preventive public health measures, as are educational campaigns to promote vaccination and the use of condoms including overcoming resistance to such.
Public health also takes various actions to limit the health disparities between different areas of the country and, in some cases, the continent or world. One issue is the access of individuals and communities to health care in terms of financial, geographical or socio-cultural constraints. The great positive impact of public health programs is widely acknowledged.
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Engineers at Imperial College London recently developed Deep Medic, a computer program that assesses scans of patients with head injuries for signs of brain trauma. Today, these are diagnosed by a doctor who pores over MRI scans. Deep Medic can do the job in seconds. Brain tumours could be next. Such diagnoses would be cheaper and more accurate than possible with the human eye. But mostly such technological advances would make doctors better, not replace them.
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It could soon join doctors on their rounds. Machines do not get emotional or tired, nor do they struggle to distinguish whether a newborn baby is blue and thus in need of urgent intervention or pink. Today, the use of robots in the operating room is limited because they must be steered manually with a joystick.
In future robots might be able to carry out some standard procedures such as hip replacements autonomously, with a surgeon getting things started and the robot doing the rest. With more complex operations, a supercomputer linked to a real-time virtual-reality VR machine could help walk surgeons through their operations. It could, for example, highlight where a tumour sits in the liver and warn a surgeon about impinging on an artery, just as a satnav warns of traffic jams ahead.
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