North American and European arms industries have developed non-toxic shot and bullets that are as effective and comparably priced as their lead counterparts Thomas Our understanding of the deleterious impacts of this form of lead exposure on wildlife and humans will change little with further scientific research, no more evidence is required. The same rationales that were used to remove lead from gasoline, paints, and household items should be applied to lead-based hunting ammunition, nationally and internationally.
This is now a socio-political issue. Three caliber classes were preferred: 7. Metal deposition per bullet type bonded lead core, lead core, and copper did not vary among moose age classes calves, yearlings, and adults. Average metal loss per bullet type was 3. Bone impact increased, whereas longer shooting distances decreased, lead loss from lead-based bullets. These factors did not influence loss of copper from copper bullets. In conclusion, a significant amount of toxic lead from lead-based bullets is deposited in the tissue of harvested moose, which may affect the health of humans and scavengers that ingest it.
By switching to copper bullets, Fennoscandian hunters can eliminate a significant source of lead exposure in humans and scavengers.
Very nice article. In my experience most rifle bullets pass through the targeted game so one could get the impression that there are no remnants left behind; apparently not the case. Good work!
Yes, lead is a very soft toxic metal… it rubs off as it passes through, and fragments easily. Any people that fish by using lead fishing sinkers are poisoning themselves, the fish, and supportive species by the pollution they cause. If legislators take their grandkids out to teach them how to fish, and handle their contaminated tackle boxes with bare hands are poisoning the people they love the most by contaminating their sandwiches, apples, cooler ice, boat bottoms, and the fish that are taken home and fed to the whole family.
We poison what we love, out of ignorance, arrogance, and political refusal to read and understand the vast body scientific research that already is available about lead poisoning…. The legislators prevent departments of environmental quality and health authorities from doing due dilligence because of ignorance, and fear of upsetting the industry lobbies that pay for their elections. A more sane future in our pacific northwest demands better accountability from us, to allow the children of our children, and their children to to be provided the beauty of the land and waters we have borrowed the from them.
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We must do a lot more to educate ourselves, drop our irresponsible fishing practices that cause lead pollution and harm across the land and waters. Go to a hardware store, buy a cheap lead check swab kit, test you tackle boxes, and learn how to fish without using lead to weight your lines. Be more responsible. Hunters and fishers, both, pollute the lands and waters they say they love. Ignorance is correctable, stupidity caused by chronic accumulative lead poisoning is not.
I read articles about lead often and not one has ever mentioned lead as a by-product of mining. In silver mining there is often a lot of lead for every little bit of silver. It has to go somewhere, and they chose to profit from it rather than go to the expense of properly disposing of it. So, the push to keep lead ammo comes from further back than ammo manufacturers and lead recyclers. Good work and keep digging!
Hong Kong protester shot with live round during China National Day rally
Chronic low dose repeated exposures are very harmful to exposed organisms. Vast quantities of research have been done, with plenty of overlapping and validating checks and balances to cover less than perfectly done areas of any individual papers. The validity of the totality of this body of scientific knowledge is overwhelmingly apparent to the research community. Lead is a toxicant that is accumulative in the bones after circulating in the blood as blood level. Blood lead is not a very good indicator of body burden accumulation, it is only an indication of recent exposures.
You can have very high body burden but only low blood lead levels at any point in time. The bone lead is much more significant in the long run, because as organisms become stressed, from illness, old age, or pregnancy the body seeks to mobilize calcium out of the bone stores, but the lead comes out with it to recirculate and do damage at just the most vulnerable stressed times for the organisms.
Exposed organisms often need two to four times the learning experiences to realize the consequences of their actions, a devastating effect of lead. Lead has very many adverse physiologic effects on many pathways in the body. Our brains are precious, it is crazy to argue for maintaining continued accumulation via preventable exposure scenarios.
Lead makes us less able to think…. As a student of public health, it is so nice to find articles that are well researched and include observations from all sides. This article was well written, well thought out, and the use of outside resources accentuated the validity of this topic. I will be using this article for a class assignment.
Props to the author! I look forward to reading more about this topic in the weeks and months to come. Excellent article. Lead robs children of there potential — there is no good reason to use lead based ammunition. Great in depth review of both sides. As a wildlife rehabber of 30 years … I wish we had access to lead blood level machines in those early days.
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Lead pellets would show up in x-rays of obviously gunshot animals… but it was much more difficult to isolate lead in animals that ingested pellets or fragments and we often assumed the animal got into rat poison or some agricultural agent. My simple read on lead is that the paint companies and the gasoline companies did not go quietly into unleaded products …. BUT they eventually did because the science — and the potential lawsuits- were clear to them.
They were spreading a dangerous toxin! How is it that the ammunition companies are exempt from liability for promoting the deposit of this toxin in public prairies, woodlots and riparian areas? I am so moved to see a national discussion of the lead deposits on public lands before my Montana Representative Ryan Zinke becomes the next Secretary of the Interior that I started a change. Keeping toxins out of our wildlife and wild places — and off our dinner plates, is not a second amendment issue!
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Jon M. February 14, at am. Riot police may be regular police who act in the role of riot police in particular situations or they may be separate units organized within or in parallel to regular police forces. Riot police are used in a variety of different situations and for a variety of different purposes.
They may be employed to control riots as their name suggests, to disperse or control crowds , to maintain public order or discourage criminality , or to protect people or property. In some cases, riot police may function as a tool of political repression by violently breaking up protests and suppressing dissent or civil disobedience. Riot police often use special equipment termed riot gear to help protect themselves and attack protesters or rioters.
Riot gear typically includes personal armor , batons , riot shields and riot helmets. Many riot police teams also deploy specialized less-than-lethal weapons, such as pepper spray , tear gas , rifles that fire rubber bullets or plastic bullets , flashbang grenades , and Long Range Acoustic Devices sound cannons. The police tactics used during the Quebec City protest serve as an example of the approaches used by North American riot police.
During the protest, riot police fired tear gas canisters, water cannon , and rubber bullets ,  dispersing large groupings of protesters both violent and peaceful, including teach-ins and teams of medics providing first aid to other protesters. Other tactical interventions aimed at arresting various perceived movement leaders.
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Some U. Army combat assault rifle. Various U. Police use the M82 to breach barriers, because the large-calibre. It is an anti-materiel rifle designated as a Special Application Sniper Rifle and designed for use against military equipment materiel , rather than against other combatants " anti-personnel ". It is used by many armies around the world both in regular forces and in special forces units.
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