That may be true once again. How, then, does Germany's role in Europe look at the moment when viewed from outside? And inside? Next to the Milan stock exchange, not far from where an meter foot tall sculpture of a middle finger offers its unique commentary on the decline of high finance, the headquarters of the newspaper Il Giornale can be found. There, in exactly the same office once used by renowned Italian journalist and author Indro Montanelli, Vittorio Feltri is now sitting.
Seventy-one years old, Feltri has been a journalist for more than half a century with Corriere della Sera and other papers. Last year, he published a remarkable book together with another well respected journalist named Gennaro Sangiuliano, deputy head of news for the national broadcaster Rai 1.
It isn't just desperate, radicalized demonstrators who draw comparisons to the past. Often, respected intellectuals and citizens who are free of financial concerns, like Feltri and Sangiuliano, do the same. The two authors see the euro as a means to a German end, writing that the common currency is reminiscent "rightly or wrongly " of the "tank divisions of yore.
And Germany's high court, the Bundesverfassungsgericht? The book, says Feltri, is intended as a polemical tract meant to point out the "unsuitability of this common currency that only Germany is profiting from. A large share of Italy's political class shares Feltri's view. Last year, the Social Democrat Romano Prodi, former president of the European Commission, raised eyebrows with an essay published in the periodical L'Espresso. Whereas Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi is careful to emphasize his proximity to Germany, radical tones can be heard on the right wing.
Germany expert Luigi Reitani said at a conference late last year that some in Italy have begun drawing "a line from the barbarian invasions via Bismarck and Hitler to Merkel. Things sometimes sound similar in France. Arnaud Montebourg, who would later become economics minister, said in that "Bismarck united the German principalities to rule over Europe and, in particular, France. In a shockingly similar way, Angela Merkel seeks to solve her domestic problems by foisting the economic and financial order adhered to by German conservatives onto the rest of Europe.
The fear of German hegemony in Europe is likely nowhere so great as it is in France, which was at least partially occupied by its neighbor three times during an year period. In recent years, "Germanophobia" has increased dramatically across the political spectrum, from Front National to the leftist wing of the governing Socialists. That has partially served to distract attention from political leaders' own failures to implement reform, but they are nonetheless sentiments that deserve to be taken seriously. The leftist French intellectual Emmanuel Todd warns that Germany is "increasingly pursuing politics of power and of hidden expansion.
Since reunification, Todd says, Germany has brought a huge area of Eastern Europe under its control, a region once under the influence of the Soviets, to use it for its own economic aims. In Athens, in a building belonging to the Ministry of Culture, Nikos Xydakis, deputy culture minister for the Syriza government, echoes the sentiment. European savings policies have ruined Greece, he says: "We have lost a quarter of our gross domestic product and a quarter of our population is unemployed. Germany, he says, has become too powerful in Europe.
The country, he concedes, is a leader both politically and economically. Xydakis says that he has to pay rent for his office because the building was sold to a fund to help pay back Athens' debts.
Hitler's Children, by Jillian Becker (Book Review) - ProQuest
For him -- just as for almost all critics of German policy -- a single word has become the focus of their complaints: austerity. It refers to policies of thrift, a concept that has positive connotations in Germany. But in European countries hit hardest by the debt crisis, it stands for a bleak policy of externally-imposed deprivation.
Germany isn't just exporting its goods anymore, it is also exporting its rules.
Other products you might like
The goods, to be sure, are sold without any form of coercion. Europe loves products from Germany, and Berlin's export surplus in stood at more than 7 percent of economic output. An export surplus means that Germany, in trading with other countries, takes in more money than it spends on their products. The difference often flows back out of Germany in the form of so-called capital exports. In other words, banks in Germany loan foreign companies money so that they can buy German products.
Even if exports to euro-zone member states dropped as a result of the crisis, no other country in the world has a trade surplus as large as Germany's. Why is that? Is it because of aggressive trade policy? German economist Henrik Enderlein is not dogmatic and doesn't view the world through a national lens. He is an economic advisor to Germany's Social Democrats and his father was a politician with the business-friendly Free Democrats.
But it is absurd to believe that Germany did so in order to harm other countries. Enderlein believes that Germany didn't consciously strive for its current roll but that it happened due to the structure of the euro zone. He also believes that the ECB is partially to blame because in the years after the euro's introduction, the euro zone's prime interest rate was kept between 3 and 4 percent. For southern European countries, this was much too low and led to a boom with rapidly climbing salaries and prices.
For Germany, on the other hand, such interest rates were too high and employers had no choice but to keep salaries low so as to keep their products affordable.
Independent news email
At first glance, that doesn't seem aggressive, but southern European countries complained that Germany was guilty of "wage dumping," or keeping domestic wages artificially low. The resistance to rising wages led to German growth, self-confidence and, as a result, power. When Angela Merkel travels to Brussels, she does so as the leader of by far the strongest economy in the euro zone. Policies she doesn't agree with don't get passed.
Power as such isn't a bad thing when those that have it use it wisely. But do they? There is a new tone in Germany. It is one that no longer abides by the noble customs of diplomacy. Whispering, suggesting and hinting have been replaced by ranting and blustering. Of Greece, he said that "a country that for decades has suffered and lived far beyond its means due to the failure of its elite -- not because of Europe, not because of Brussels and not because of Berlin but exclusively because of the failure of its elite -- has to slowly come back to reality.
And when those responsible in this country lie to their people, it's not surprising that the people react as they have. He didn't miss a single opportunity to gloat about Bavaria's economic and financial strength. Volker Kauder, the conservatives' floor leader in German parliament, is the author of a particularly triumphalist example of the new tone, uttered way back in Merkel, of course, would never adopt such a tone, at least not publicly.
She is more careful, her utterances sometimes so twisted that it isn't immediately obvious what she is trying to say.
- Share your thoughts and debate the big issues.
- The Art of Fighting Without Fighting!
- Returning Customers.
Last Tuesday, she told conservative parliamentarians in Berlin that "Germany must be a country that doesn't leave anything untried in the search for progress. The chancellor has an expansive project that is to ultimately result, one could say tongue in cheek, in a Merkel Reich. She isn't nearly as focused on Europe as her predecessor Helmut Kohl, who wanted to see Germany dissolve into the European Union.
Merkel thinks more in nation-state terms, but she knows that Germany alone will have little influence on the world. Countries that want to have a say must have a large population and a strong economy. Germany has the latter, but, relative to China or the US, lacks the former -- which is why Germany needs populous Europe. But it must be a competitive, economically powerful Europe -- and that is what Merkel is working toward.
Early on in the euro crisis, she developed ideas for so-called bench-marking. The concept called for European countries to be measured in several categories against the best in that category, which was often Germany. In this way, a German Europe would be created.
http://yourdairygold2.alpharages.com/10764-sexo-gratis.php In the battle against the debt crisis in Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Cyprus and Greece, Europe considered two different approaches. The southern countries wanted to stimulate growth through increased spending in the hope that state revenues would climb. Germany and northern European countries, by contrast, preferred cost cutting and structural reforms, an approach that made significant demands of the citizens of the countries affected. The economically powerful Germany got its way.
Hitler’s world may not be so far away
In order to put the struggling countries on the right track -- on the German track, that is -- Merkel brought in the International Monetary Fund so as to free Germany from having to play the strict overseer. Still, it has not escaped notice that Berlin is in charge.
- Obsolete Honor - Novel about the Valkyrie Conspiracy.
- An Obsolete Honor: A Story of the German Resistance to Hitler.
- I Wonder Whos Kissing Her Now.
- Bacteriophages: Nature and Exploitation (Euroscicon Meeting Reports).
- What Makes Great Detective Fiction, According to T. S. Eliot?
From an early point in the crisis, other European leaders dared to protest openly. German sociologist Ulrich Beck, who has since passed away, referred to the pressure being exerted on Europe from Berlin as "Merkiavellismus. The change in Germany's approach to European policy has been dramatic. Helmut Kohl sought to avoid isolation at all costs when it came to important negotiations, but Merkel has all but completely rejected that approach. I am right," she once said to a small group of advisors during a discussion about the role of the IMF.
Later, she said: "We are in Europe what the Americans are in the world: the unloved leading power. European Parliament President Martin Schulz says that during his campaign in as the center-left's lead candidate, he was frequently asked: "How can you run for the office of European Commission president?
Related Hitlers Demons: A Novel of the German Resistance
Copyright 2019 - All Right Reserved